By Levi Clancy for לוי on
קדיש Kiddush (Hebrew: sanctification) is a ritual of reciting blessings over wine prior to a holiday meal.
In the talmudic era, wine was a daily beverage. קדיש kiddush was introduced to distinguish that drinking wine on shabbat and festival days was different than drinking wine on regular days: קדיש kiddush reiterates the sanctity of these days. A heavily decorated קדיש kiddush goblet is often used to re-emphasize this sanctity.
There are various kiddush for the different holidays, but they all have pretty much the same structure.
Remember to use the right kiddush prayer for the right event, and to understand which passages are the same and which are different. קדיש Kiddush is performed at the start of shabbat, and before festival meals. Also, קדיש kiddush is performed in the synagogue during shabbat so even those who are not at home will get to hear it. It is usually performed by the head of the household, and then everyone will sip their wine. In the synagogue, the rabbi will recite קדיש kiddush and then the cantor or another person will be chosen to sip from the cup.
קדיש Kiddush has six steps, with an additional seventh prayer on Friday nights (שבת shabbat prayer) or Saturday nights (הַבְדָּלָה havdalah prayer).
Many of our traditional prayers developed in the era between the second Temple destruction and the Middle Ages. This particular prayer is by Rabbi Shimon, but there are others by Rabbi Hiyya and Rav Hamnuna Sava which are just as appropriate. link Sometimes this is included at the very beginning of the shabbat prayer, and is as such in many popular haggadot:
|Prepare the meal of the supernal King.|
|This is the meal of the Holy One, blessed be He, and His Shechinah.|