הגדה Haggadah studies

By Levi Clancy for לוי on

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The סדר seder

Fifteen steps of the Passover סדר seder.

The סדר seder is usually said to have fifteen steps which are shown below. However, these fifteen steps disguise that the סדר seder has several thematic stages, and encompasses a vast array of blessings, prayers, readings and rituals. Thus, the detailed steps are additionally provided.

  1. קדיש kiddush
    Blessings and the first cup of wine

  2. ורחץ urchatz
    Hand washing, without blessing

  3. כרפס karpas

  4. יחץ yachatz
    Break the middle מצה matzah.

  5. מגיד maggid
    The telling

  6. רחצה rachtzah
    Ritual washing of hands

  7. מוציא motzi
    bread blessing

  8. מצה matzah
    eat the מצה matzah.

  9. מרור maror
    eating the מרור maror

  10. כורך korech

  11. שולחן עורך shulchan arukh
    The meal

  12. צפון tzafun
    eating אפיקומן afikoman

  13. ברך bareich
    The third cup of wine.
    Cup for Elijah the Prophet.

  14. הלל hallel
    Songs of praise

  15. נירצה nirtzah
    Next year

Detailed outline of the Passover סדר seder
קדיש kiddush

The blessings to begin a meal are recited. In any other meal, these are recited after washing the hands.

Kadesh!pour the wine
שבת shabbat prayer(Friday night only)
הגפן ha-gafenprayer for wine
festival prayerprayer for festivals
הַבְדָּלָה havdalah(Saturday night only)
שהחינו‎ shehecheyanuprayer for rare joys
drink the winerecline to the left
ורחץ urchatzThe hands are wished without any blessing.
כרפס karpasThe כרפס karpas (fresh vegetable) is eaten.
יחץ yachatzThe מצה matzah is broken.
מגיד Maggid

מגיד Maggid (Hebrew: the telling) forms the core of the סדר seder. This is when the Exodus story is told and discussed.

הא לחמא עניא
ha lachma anya
An Aramaic passage that is the only non-Hebrew part of the סדר seder.
מה נשתנה
mah nishtanah
The four questions.
דינו dayenu
כוס שני kos sheiniSecond cup.
Blessing the meal
רחצה rachtzah
מוציא motzi
מצה matzah
מרור maror
כורך korech
שולחן עורך
shulchan arukh

the meal
צפון tzofun
ברך Bareich
הלל Hallel
נירצה Nirtzah
next year
More songs
Further studies

Candle lighting

We light the candles. chabad.org plus other great info on meanings and how-tos

קדיש kiddush

The קדיש kiddush is detailed at that link. A common Passover understanding is that this sanctification refers to when the one promised to take the Israelites out of Egypt, and they were separated and therefore sanctified. However, more specifically it applies to acknowledging the evening, its beverages, its meal, and every little detail this evening are set apart.

Festivals prayer



excellent trilingual transliteration

On Friday nights include the italicized sections.
עברית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
ברוך אתה יהוה אלהינו מלך העולמיBaruch atah adonay, eloheinu melech ha'olam,now bless our blessed lord, our god, majesty of the universe
אשר בחר בנו מכל עם asher bachar banu mikol 'amwho has chosen us from among all people,
ורוממנו מכל לשוןveromemanu mikol lashonand raised us above all tongues,
וקדשנו במצוחיוv'kideshanu b'mitzvotavand blessed us with the commandments.
ותתן לנו יהוה אלהינו באהבהvatiten lanu adonai eloheinu b’ahavahYou have given us in love
shabbat for rest and
מועדים לשמחהmo'adim l'simchahfeasts for gladness and festivals for rejoicing.
This Shabbat-day and
this Feast of Matzot is to commemorate our exodus,
which you have given us in love.
You have chosen us to be blessed above all peoples
and have given us our heritage, your holy shabbat and festivals.
in love and favor, in happiness and joy.
Blessed are you, Adonai, who blessed
the shabbat and Israel and the festive seasons.


The סדר seder has a false start.

Jewish dinners begin with a fixed ritual, but during the סדר seder this ritual is turned on its head. This is meant to arouse children's curiosity, and encourage them to begin asking questions. However, because many Jewish families do not have Jewish pre-dinner ritual, this intention is wholly lost and instead succumbs to the dusts of fixed procedure. There are three steps to the false start.

ורחץ urchatz

All at the table wash their hands
without reciting a blessing.

כרפס karpas

ha-adama is a blessing both for the כרפס karpas on the plate
and the מרור maror and korech to be eaten later

יחץ yachatz

מגיד Maggid

Originally the מגיד maggid followed the dinner.

This explanation was in the form of a midrash, that is, a running interpretation of the pertinent Biblical narrative, as understood by rabbinic oral tradition. It was constructed to satisfy a basic principle: the Haggadah was to begin with a picture of degradation and to conclude with a portrayal of glory. The Jew at the Seder was to experience the depths of depression in which his ancestors had agonized, and to travel vicariously with them along the historical road leading to the heights of dignity. So the midrash began with Jacob's descent into Egypt and the enslavement of his descendants, and concluded with God's entry into history to save His people. New Union Haggadah, p 10

הא לחמא עניא Ha lachma anya

הא לחמא עניא Ha lachma anya (Hebrew: זהו לחם העוני) is the only part of the סדר seder not in Hebrew; it is in Aramaic.

מה נשתנה‎ mah nishtanah
four questions

The four questions originated in case the children came up with no questions of their own.

The Four Questions, far from being a fixed text for the child to recite, were simply sample queries [in the mishnah] which his father directed at him if his own natural inquisitiveness failed him. That is, if the child asked nothing at all, his father asked him, in effect, "Didn't you notice that we eat only matzah tonight?" New Union Haggadah, p 10

Placing the maggid at the beginning of the dinner poses a problem: how could children be expected to ask questions about symbolic pesach foods that had yet to be served?

B'nei Berak story

It happened that Rabbi Eliezer, Rabbi Yehoshua, Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah, Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Tarphon were reclining [at a סדר seder] in B'nei Berak. They were discussing the exodus from Egypt all that night, until their students came and told them: "Our Masters! The time has come for reciting the morning Shema!"

Rabbi Eleazar ben Azaryah said: "I am like a man of seventy years old, yet I did not succeed in proving that the exodus from Egypt must be mentioned at night-until Ben Zoma explained it: "It is said, `That you may remember the day you left Egypt all the days of your life;' now `the days of your life' refers to the days, [and the additional word] `all' indicates the inclusion of the nights!"

The sages, however, said: "`The days of your life' refers to the present-day world; and `all' indicates the inclusion of the days of Mashiach."

עבדים היינו avadim hayinu
We were slaves

Nowhere else are Jews obliged to explain the rationale behind a mitzvah. But Rabban Gamaliel II was the leading sage in the era after the Temple was destroyed, said that not discussing the symbols nullifies the virtue of the mitvah: to not describe why they are used, renders them as useless as not using them at all. Thus, it is imperative to discuss the Passover-sacrifice, the Matzah (unleavened bread) and the מרור maror (bitter herbs).

עברית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
Deuteronomy 6:20 Some day your child will come to you, asking, "What do all these stories and rules mean which G-d has commanded us?"
Deuteronomy 6:21 And you shall respond, "עבדים היינו avadim hayinu -- We were slaves in Egypt, and the Lord set us free with great strength.
Deuteronomy 6:22 Moreover, the Lord showed great miracles to us, against Egypt, the Pharaoh, and all his household.
Deuteronomy 6:23 He set us free from there, in order to bring us in -- to give us the land sworn to our ancestors.
Deuteronomy 6:24 G-d commanded us to observe all these stories and rules, to fear G-d always for our own survival, and so it continues today.
Deuteronomy 6:25 It is righteous for us to be careful and observe every rule, just as we were told.

יציאת מצרים yetziat mitzrayim
Exodus from Egypt
(renamed in the beginning...)

Also known as In the beginning.... Article on universality and turn of phrase

The Bible tells us that in ancient times our ancestors dwelt "on the other side of the great river and lived among idol-worshippers." In the city of Ur, our patriarch Abraham was the first to understand that God is One, the Eternal. To worship God in freedom, Abraham had to flee the land of idolators. Levin 1969, p 48

Joshua 24:3
In the beginning, your ancestors, including Terah the father of Abraham and Nahor, lived beyond the Euphrates River and worshiped other gods. Joshua 24:2
and to Isaac I gave Jacob and Esau. I assigned the hill country of Seir to Esau, but Jacob and his family went down to Egypt. Joshua 24:4

Abraham's heirs grew fat in the land, and God gave him Isaac. And Isaac's son Jacob had many sons, but his favorite was Joseph, who was sold by his jealous brothers to a caravan, and they brought Joseph to Egypt. Levin 1969, p 48

Idolatry is a counterfeit attempt to satisfy the basic human need to connect to a dimension beyond ourselves. For some, this means carving a statue of Buddha; for others, it's owning a new Mercedes. During Abraham's time, everyone had an idol. Rabbi Shraqa Simmons

The Torah calls him Avraham Ha-Ivri - Abraham the Hebrew. Ha-Ivri translates literally as "the one who stands on the other side." The entire world stood on one side, with Abraham standing firm on the other. This is what the Haggadah means: "I took your father Abraham from the other side of the river." Rabbi Shraqa Simmons

The Bible says, "I took your father from the other side of the great river and led him throughout all the land of Canaan." And it relates: And the Lord said to Abraham, "All the land that thou seest, to thee I will give it, and to thy seed forever." Levin 1969, p 48

God said to Abram, "Know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, where they will be enslaved and oppressed four hundred years." Exodus 15:13
"But I will also judge the nation whom they will serve, and afterward they will come out with many possessions. Exodus 15:14

One may think that [the discussion of the exodus] must be from the first of the month. The Torah therefore says, `On that day.' `On that day,' however, could mean while it is yet daytime; the Torah therefore says, `It is because of this.' The expression `because of this' can only be said when matzah and maror are placed before you.

Deuteronomy 26:5-8
Go forth and learn

Laban the Aramean has traditionally been mistranslated.

These verses (and a few more) were recited upon bringing an offering to the Temple.

Go forth and learn what Laban the Aramean
wanted to do to our father Jacob.
Pharaoh had issued a decree against the male children only,
but Laban wanted to uproot everyone:
The Aramean wished to destroy my father

At some point, an original thematic opening thematic statement of the Haggadah, "A fugitive Aramean" was my father," was translated into a polemic against a contemporaneous Syrian foe, and the text was translated, "An Aramean sought to destroy my father." New Union Haggadah, p 5

There is an excellent article on the translation and significance of these opening words: link.

And he went down to Egypt
Jacob was forced by Divine decree.
And he sojourned there
This teaches that our father Jacob did not go down to Egypt to settle, but only to live there temporarily. Thus it is said, "They said to Pharaoh, We have come to sojourn in the land, for there is no pasture for your servants' flocks because the hunger is severe in the land of Canaan; and now, please, let your servants dwell in the land of Goshen."
Few in number
As it is said: "Your fathers went down to Egypt with seventy persons, and now, the L-rd, your G-d, has made you as numerous as the stars of heaven."

And he became there a nation
This teaches that Israel was distinctive there.
Great, mighty
As it is said: "And the children of Israel were fruitful and increased abundantly, and multiplied and became very, very mighty, and the land became filled with them."
And numerous
As it is said: "I passed over you and saw you wallowing in your bloods, and I said to you `By your blood you shall live,' and I said to you `By your blood you shall live!' I caused you to thrive like the plants of the field, and you increased and grew and became very beautiful your bosom fashioned and your hair grown long, but you were naked and bare."

The Egyptians treated us badly
Come, let us act cunningly with [the people] lest they multiply and, if there should be a war against us, they will join our enemies, fight against us and leave the land.
And they made us suffer
They set taskmasters over [the people of Israel] to make them suffer with their burdens, and they built storage cities for Pharaoh, Pitom and Ramses.
And they put hard work upon us
The Egyptians made the children of Israel work with rigor. And they made their lives bitter with hard work, with mortar and with bricks and all manner of service in the field, all their work which they made them work with rigor." And we cried out to the L-rd, the G-d of our fathers, and the L-rd heard our voice and saw our suffering, our labor and our oppression.

And we cried out to the L-rd, the G-d of our fathers
During that long period, the king of Egypt died; and the children of Israel groaned because of the servitude, and they cried out. And their cry for help from their servitude rose up to G-d.
And the L-rd heard our voice
And G-d heard their groaning, and G-d remembered His covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
And he saw our suffering
this refers to the separation of husband and wife, as it is said: G-d saw the children of Israel and G-d took note.
Our labor
this refers to the "children," as it is said: "Every boy that is born, you shall throw into the river and every girl you shall keep alive."
And our oppression
this refers to the pressure, as it is said: "I have seen the oppression with which the Egyptians oppress them."

The L-rd took us out of Egypt
Not through an angel, not through a seraph and not through a messenger. The Holy One, blessed be He, did it in His glory by Himself! Thus it is said: "In that night I will pass through the land of Egypt, and I will smite every first-born in the land of Egypt, from man to beast, and I will carry out judgments against all the gods of Egypt, I the L-rd."
"I will pass through the land of Egypt," I and not an angel;
"And I will smite every first-born in the land of Egypt," I and not a seraph;
"And I will carry out judgments against all the gods of Egypt," I and not a messenger;
"I- the L-rd," it is I, and none other!

With a strong hand
Tthis refers to the dever (pestilence) as it is said: "Behold, the hand of the L-rd will be upon your livestock in the field, upon the horses, the donkeys, the camels, the herds and the flocks, a very severe pestilence."
And with an outstretched arm
This refers to the sword, as it is said: "His sword was drawn, in his hand, stretched out over Jerusalem."

And with a great manifestation
This refers to the revelation of the Shechinah (Divine Presence), as it is said: "Has any G-d ever tried to take for himself a nation from the midst of another nation, with trials, signs and wonders, with war and with a strong hand and an outstretched arm, and with great manifestations, like all that the L-rd your G-d, did for you in Egypt before your eyes!"
And with signs
This refers to the staff, as it is said: "Take into your hand this staff with which you shall perform the signs."
And wonders
This refers to the blood, as it is said: "And I shall show wonders in heaven and on earth.

Another explanation: "Strong hand" indicates two [plagues]; "Outstretched arm," another two; "Great manifestation," another two; "Signs," another two; and "Wonders," another two.


This part I have inserted as an exegetical opportunity.
Biddy Mason

In Georgia, Biddy Mason, as she is known today, was born Bridget. Bridget with no last name because she had been born into the societal order as a slave. At one point she was given as a wedding present to a family that would someday move with her to California.

Biddy Mason
Bridget "Biddy" Mason

Biddy had been a slave her whole life, but one night here in California, in fact, San Bernardino, she ran away. But she was not a free woman. She was an escaped slave, and that was her status when she came before a Los Angeles court to argue for her freedom.

Alan Turing, Chana Levine, David Baker

In England, Alan Turing was part of a team bent on decoding the Nazi's encrypted communications. Alan had a hunch, but he needed more resources. This modest-ranking man wrote a direct letter to Winston Churchill, who was so moved that he immediately pledged to Alan all the support he needed. Many lives hung in the balance of whether Alan could decipher the Nazi code in time.

Meanwhile, Chana and David Baker lived in the Lithuanian town Dziewiniszki. Their eldest daughter Rivka was a school teacher. Mendel helped his father in his tailor shop. Their youngest, little David and Chaya-Minke, hoped to follow their older siblings' footsteps. Like so many others, the family had not left because that meant abandoning their home, their community, and maybe even their faith.

Alan not only deciphered the Nazi code, he also kept up with the Nazis' constant adjustments. But he had a secret which would make him an enemy of the government. One day Alan went for a walk and met a handsome young man named Arnold. Alan invited Arnold to lunch, and they fell in love.

When Alan was burgled one day, he reported it to the police, and detectives discovered he had a boyfriend. Homosexuality was illegal, and Alan and Arnold were imprisoned.

Mildred and Richard Loving

Mildred and Richard Loving

In Virginia, Mildred and Richard Loving had been married just a few weeks when a sheriff and two deputies stormed into their bedroom in the early morning. "Who is this woman you're sleeping with?" demanded the sheriff. Mildred answered: "I'm his wife." Mildred and Richard were jailed for violating the Racial Integrity Act.

Mariama and Atanaas

In Baghdad, Miriam and David had just been married when Iraq went to war with Iran. Like so many others, David was drafted; but unlike so many others, he came home alive several long years later. He and Miriam began a family now, and their daughter was born. But then came the Gulf War, and he was drafted again.

In this war, Baghdad was hit. Normalcy was wiped away. Aerial bombs destroyed pipelines, power lines, gas lines and water lines. And Iraq began to fracture by race, by politics, by religion. Sunni, Shia, Jew, and -- like Miriam and David -- Christian. But Miriam and David remained blessed. They had their lives, and each other -- and their church.

Then one day in 2004, one more war entered their lives. Violence erupted against the Christians. Miriam and David were willing to leave everything behind, if they could get asylum to the United States.

Kris and Sandra

Kristin Perry and Sandra Stier. nplusonemag.com

Love is hard work. Kris Perry's mother had taught her that, in words and by example. That lesson kept Kris in an unhappy, loveless marriage with an alcoholic husband. But eventually she decided that if love was such hard work, she would rather live without it. She left her husband and raised their four children alone.

Then one day, Kris met Sandra. For the first time, Kris fell in love. And it was mutual. Kris had never expected she needed a Sandra in her life, yet together they formed a family and raised Kris' four children. Naturally, Kris and Sandra married each other in a California courthouse in 2007.

But when Proposition 8 passed, their illusion of acceptance and inclusion was shattered. Their marriage was annulled. The state sent them a letter and a refund.

No matter what trial is dealt us
by an oppressive tyrant, or a tyrannical majority
only we may decide whether to abandon ourselves and our beliefs.

You may purchase male or female slaves
from among the foreigners who live among you.
You may also purchase the children of such resident foreigners,
including those who have been born in your land.
You may treat them as your property,
passing them on to your children as a permanent inheritance. Leviticus 25:44-46

We hold these truths to be self-evident,
that all men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator
with certain unalienable Rights,
that among these are Life, Liberty
and the pursuit of Happiness. Declaration of Independence

I long to hear that you have declared an independency.
And, by the way, in the new code of laws
which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make,
I desire you would remember the ladies
and be more generous and favorable to them
than your ancestors.Abigail Adams' letter to John Adams, March 1776

The man will be free in the seventh year,
but his wife and children will still belong to his master.
But the slave may plainly declare,
'I love my master, wife, and children. I would rather not go free.' ...
After that, the slave will belong to his master forever. Exodus 21:2-6

There is one strong argument
in favor of negro slavery over all other slavery;
that he, being unfitted for the mechanic arts,
for trade, and all skillful pursuits,
leaves those pursuits to be carried on by the whites Fitzhugh, 1857

When a man sells his daughter as a slave,
she will not be freed at the end of six years as the men are.
If she does not please the man who bought her,
he may allow her to be bought back again. Exodus 21:7-11

You recently repented and did what was right in my eyes
by proclaiming liberty, each to his neighbor, ...
but then you turned around and profaned my name
when each of you took back his male and female slaves,
whom you had set free according to their desire,
and you brought them into subjection to be your slaves. Jeremiah 34:15-16

Therefore, thus says the Lord:
You have not obeyed me by proclaiming liberty,
every one to his brother and to his neighbor;
behold, I proclaim to you liberty to the sword,
to pestilence, and to famine, declares the Lord.
I will make you a horror to all the kingdoms of the earth." Jeremiah 34:15-17

In each generation, we feel blessed by our liberties,
but we are bound by our prejudices.
We celebrate freedom even when we deny it to others.

We celebrate Exodus as the story of liberation.
Yet one passage celebrates our release from slavery,
while the next teaches us how to keep our own slaves.
The same authors who enshrined liberty,
in Exodus, Haggadot, the Declaration of Independence,
in the Preamble and Bill of Rights,
were oppressors themselves.

Countless laws sought not only to enslave entire peoples,
but also every generation of their descendants.
And from birth, women were stripped of their autonomy,
to exist only through the liberties (and if fortunate, the kindness)
of their patriarch.

"All men are created equal." "Obey me by proclaiming liberty."
The meaning of these words is different to us today,
than to their authors yesterday.

When our nation was founded,
Ancient Israel, and the United States,
there was not liberty, nor freedom,
as you and I would understand it.
But when our ancestors fought for their freedom,
whether Patriots fighting against an empire,
or Ancient Israelites fleeing from one,
that deliverance is absorbed by generation after generation,
catalyzing, reinforcing that love for freedom.
And to that love we open our hearts.

That love for liberty has motivated
one caste after another to rise,
and to wash away so many boundaries.
Systems far vaster and older than any individual
have been challenged by those
unafraid of death nor imprisonment.

In ourselves, and the generations which follow,
we plant the seeds for liberation, someday,
beyond every perceivable limit.

Tonight we try to understand the feeling of liberation
that motivated great minds to write Exodus at all,
and why they instruct us to share the Exodus story
with every generation, every year, as it has been for millennia.
Despite the boundaries and orders that we build,
we cannot totally insulate ourselves.
Beyond Jew and gentile; skin color; biology;
beyond I, there is we.

Prisoner and guard: both of their bloods, and tears,
evaporate to form rains which feed streams which we drink.
Aristocrat and serf: both of their breaths
absorb into the plants which we eat.
The cycle of death and rebirth
is the only natural order.
Our skin, our hair, every part of our flesh
has cycled into and from the soil
for thousands of generations.

Through Passover, we partake in
traditions, lessons, thoughts and emotions
spanning thousands of years of development.

Preserved with so much love for thousands of years,
Passover re-kindled at sundown every third week of נִיסָן nisan.
And as sundown has passed over our home,
it now is reaching our neighbor,
and will wash over the globe, continually.
Our minds feel the same emotions,
and our hearts the same realizations,
as so many people who died before us,
and who will be born long after us.

Fill your belly with good things;
day and night, night and day, dance and be merry,
feast and rejoice.
Let your clothes be fresh,
bathe yourself in water,
cherish the little child that holds your hand,
and make your wife happy in your embrace;
for this too is the lot of man. Epic of Gilgamesh

Bridget argued for her liberation, and she won. She stayed in Los Angeles and worked a midwife. In downtown LA there is a park dedicated to her: Biddy Mason Park, tucked between two buildings.

Alan had helped his nation's victory, and was now a prisoner. He was given a choice: remain in prison, or be chemically castrated. He chose castration, and committed suicide two years later by eating a poisoned apple.

What remains of Chana, David, Rivka, Mendel, little David and Chaya-Minke's bodies is in a mass grave with so many others, in Worenow, Poland.

Mildred and Richard Loving's case rose to the Supreme Court, and in one ruling the Court shattered every single race-based marital law in the United States.

Kris and Sandra's case was heard this week by that same court along with other cases, that together have the possibility to give Kris and Sandra the full rights of a couple, not just in California but in our entire nation.

Miriam, David and their two children now live in Pasadena. Their daughter is married and has children. Their son is in college. Miriam is also in college. They both get good grades.

How can we still respect Exodus as a liberation text, when the same books advocate slavery, ethnic cleansing and misogyny? I think that ultimately, the combustible threads of evil and destruction are inextricable from our human condition. It is not that the Exodus story is faulty, it is that we ourselves are filled with these same forces which led to discrimination, deprivation, and loss of life. And ultimately it is our challenge to see the good in the world -- and in the texts we turn to century after century for wisdom -- and move through our lives based on both real good and potential good, seeing this as our guiding lights, and mkaing them the central, vigilant axes in our lives. So rather than dwelling on evils that are now apparent/obvious, turn your critical gaze to discern those which remain hidden before our very eyes.

Bella Abzug and Malala are good. Malala was born a year before Abzug died.

רבי יהודה Rabbi Yehudah

דצך עדש באחב
d'tsach adash b'achav

Ten plagues

מכות מצרים, Makot Mitzrayim (Plagues of Egypt)
עשר המכות, Eser HaMakot (Ten Plagues)

Rabbi Yosi the Gallilean said: How do you know that the Egyptians were stricken by ten plagues in Egypt, and then were struck by fifty plagues at the sea? In Egypt it says of them, "The magicians said to Pharaoh `This is the finger of G-d.' At the sea it says, "Israel saw the great hand that the L-rd laid against Egypt; and the people feared the L-rd, and they believed in the L-rd and in His servant Moses." Now, how often were they smitten by `the finger'? Ten plagues! Thus you must conclude that in Egypt they were smitten by ten plagues, at the sea they were smitten by fifty plagues!

Rabbi Eliezer said: How do we know that each individual plague which the Holy One, blessed be He, brought upon the Egyptians in Egypt consisted of four plagues? For it is said: "He sent against them His fierce anger, fury, and indignation, and trouble, a discharge of messengers of evil": `Fury,' is one; `Indignation,' makes two; `Trouble,' makes three; `Discharge of messengers of evil,' makes four. Thus you must now say that in Egypt they were struck by forty plagues, and at the sea they were stricken by two hundred plagues.

Rabbi Akiva said: How do we know that each individual plague which the Holy One, blessed be He, brought upon the Egyptians in Egypt consisted of five plagues? For it is said: "He sent against them his fierce anger, fury, and indignation, and trouble, a discharge of messengers of evil": "His fierce anger," is one; "fury," makes two; "indignation," makes three; "trouble," makes four; "discharge of messengers of evil," makes five. Thus you must now say that in Egypt they were struck by fifty plagues, and at the sea they were stricken by two hundred and fifty plagues.

דינו Dayenu

In the סדר seder, we are now free.
דינו Dayenu (Hebrew: enough for us) is a Hebrew song
to celebrate the many levels of our blessings.
עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
אִלּוּ הוֹצִיאָנוּ מִמִּצְרָיִםIlu hotzianu mimitzrayimIf He had brought us out from Egypt,
וְלֹא עָשָׂה בָּהֶם שְׁפָטִיםv'lo asah bahem sh'fatimand had not carried out judgments against them
אִלּוּ עָשָׂה בָּהֶם שְׁפָטִיםIlu asah bahem sh'fatimIf He had carried out judgments against them,
וְלֹא עָשָׂה בֵּאלֹהֵיהֶםv'lo asah beloheihem,and not against their idols
אִלּוּ עָשָׂה בֵּאלֹהֵיהֶםIlu asah beloheihemIf He had destroyed their idols,
וְלֹא הָרַג אֶת בְּכוֹרֵיהֶםv'lo harag et b'choreihemand had not smitten their first-born
אִלּוּ הָרַג אֶת בְּכוֹרֵיהֶםIlu harag et b'choreihemIf He had smitten their first-born,
וְלֹא נָתַן לָנוּ אֶת מָמוֹנָםv'lo natan lanu et mamonamand had not given us their wealth
אִלּוּ נָתַן לָנוּ אֶת מָמוֹנָםIlu natan lanu et mamonamIf He had given us their wealth,
ןלא קָרַע לָנוּ אֶת הַיָּםv'lo kara lanu et hayamand had not split the sea for us
אִלּוּ קָרַע לָנוּ אֶת הַיָּםIlu kara lanu et hayamIf He had split the sea for us,
וְלֹא הֶעֱבִירָנוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ בֶּחָרָבָהv'lo he'eviranu b'tocho becharavahand had not taken us through it on dry land
אִלּוּ הֶעֱבִירָנוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ בֶּחָרָבָהIlu he'eviranu b'tocho becharavahIf He had taken us through the sea on dry land,
וְלֹא שִׁקַע צָרֵינוּ בְּתוֹכוֹv'lo shika tzareinu b'tochoand had not drowned our oppressors in it
אִלּוּ שִׁקַע צָרֵינוּ בְּתוֹכוֹIlu shika tzareinu b'tochoIf He had drowned our oppressors in it,
וְלֹא סִפֵּק צָרַכֵּנוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָהv'lo sipeik tzorkeinu bamidbar arba'im shana,and had not supplied our needs in the desert for forty years
אִלּוּ סִפֵּק צָרַכֵּנוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָהIlu sipeik tzorkeinu bamidbar arba'im shana,If He had supplied our needs in the desert for forty years,
וְלֹא הֶאֱכִילָנוּ אֶת הַמָּןv'lo he'echilanu et hamanand had not fed us the manna
אִלּוּ הֶאֱכִילָנוּ אֶת הַמָּןIlu he'echilanu et hamanIf He had fed us the manna,
וְלֹא נָתַן לָנוּ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּתv'lo natan lanu et hashabbatand had not given us the Shabbat
אִלּוּ נָתַן לָנוּ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּתIlu natan lanu et hashabbatIf He had given us the Shabbat,
וְלֹא קֵרְבָנוּ לִפְנֵי הַר סִינַיv'lo keirvanu lifnei har sinaiand had not brought us before Mount Sinai
אִלּוּ קֵרְבָנוּ לִפְנֵי הַר סִינַיIlu keirvanu lifnei har sinaiIf He had brought us before Mount Sinai,
וְלֹא נָתַן לָנוּ אֶת הַתּוֹרָהv'lo natan lanu et hatorahand had not given us the Torah
אִלּוּ נָתַן לָנוּ אֶת הַתּוֹרָהIlu natan lanu et hatorahIf He had given us the Torah,
וְלֹא הִכְנִיסָנוּ לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵלv'lo hichnisanu l'eretz yisra'eil,and had not brought us into Israel's land
אִלּוּ הִכְנִיסָנוּ לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵלIlu hichnisanu l'eretz yisra'eilIf He had brought us into Israel's land,
וְלֹא בָּנָה לָנוּ אֶת בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁv'lo vanah lanu et beit hamikdashand had not built for us the Temple

Thus how much more so should we be grateful to the Omnipresent One for the doubled and redoubled goodness that He has bestowed upon us; for He has brought us out of Egypt, and carried out judgments against them, and against their idols, and smote their first-born, and gave us their wealth, and split the sea for us, and took us through it on dry land, and drowned our oppressors in it, and supplied our needs in the desert for forty years, and fed us the manna, and gave us the Shabbat, and brought us before Mount Sinai, and gave us the Torah, and brought us into the land of Israel and built for us the Beit Habechirah to atone for all our sins.

הלל hallel, part I

הלל‎ Hallel (praise) is a verbatim recitation of psalms.
Some traditions also include נִשְׁמַת nishmat.

הלל שלם Hallel Shalem (Full/Complete Hallel) on Sukkot, Shemini Atzeret, Simchat Torah, Shavuot, the first two days of Pesach (only the first day in Israel). חצי הלל Chatzi Hallel (Half/Partial Hallel) ("chatzi is "half" in Hebrew) does not include parts of the הלל שלם Hallel Shalem: the first eleven verses of Psalms 115 and 116 are omitted. It is recited on the last six days of Pesach and on Rosh Chodesh. The hallel begins before dinner and resumes after dinner. The הלל Hallel psalms are perhaps the earliest element in ancient Passover worship New Union Haggadah, p 7.

Reading: web.stevens.edu

Cover the מצה matzah.
Raise the כוס שני kos sheini, the second cup of wine.
Keep it raised for the blessings.
Begin the הלל hallel

This should be omitted because this is not intended to be a formal hallel. Usually hallel was recited before slaughtering the animal at the temple, and again when partaking the meat. It was thus one of the earliest, core elements of the Passover ceremonies. When the temple was destroyed, the hallel was included in the Seder but it should not have a pre-blessing as this is not its natural role -- it is here to remember, and because it brings joy.

עִבְרִית ha'ivriEnglish
Thus it is our duty to thank, to laud, to praise, to glorify, to exalt, to adore, to bless, to elevate and to honor
the One who did all these miracles for our fathers and for us.
He took us from slavery to freedom, from sorrow to joy,
and from mourning to festivity, and from deep darkness to great light and from bondage to redemption.
Let us therefore recite before Him Halleluyah
Psalm 113
עִבְרִית ha'ivriEnglish
הַלְלוּ, עַבְדֵי יְהוָה; הַלְלוּ, אֶת-שֵׁם יְהוָהPraise G-d! Offer praise, you servants of the L-rd; praise the Name of the L-rd.
יְהִי שֵׁם יְהוָה מְבֹרָךְ -- מֵעַתָּה, וְעַד-עוֹלָםMay the L-rd's Name be blessed from now and to all eternity.
מִמִּזְרַח-שֶׁמֶשׁ עַד-מְבוֹאוֹ -- מְהֻלָּל, שֵׁם יְהוָהFrom the rising of the sun to its setting, the L-rd's Name is praised.
רָם עַל-כָּל-גּוֹיִם יְהוָה; עַל הַשָּׁמַיִם כְּבוֹדוֹThe L-rd is high above all nations, His glory is over the heavens.
מִי, כַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ -- הַמַּגְבִּיהִי לָשָׁבֶתWho is like the L-rd, our G-d, who dwells on high
הַמַּשְׁפִּילִי לִרְאוֹת -- בַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץyet looks down so low upon heaven and earth!
מְקִימִי מֵעָפָר דָּל; מֵאַשְׁפֹּת, יָרִים אֶבְיוֹןHe raises the poor from the dust, He lifts the needy from the dunghill,
לְהוֹשִׁיבִי עִם-נְדִיבִים; עִם, נְדִיבֵי עַמּוֹto seat them with nobles, with the nobles of His people.
מוֹשִׁיבִי, עֲקֶרֶת הַבַּיִת -- אֵם-הַבָּנִים שְׂמֵחָהHe restores the barren woman to the house, into a joyful mother of children.
Psalm 114
עִבְרִית ha'ivriEnglish
בְּצֵאת יִשְׂרָאֵל, מִמִּצְרָיִם; בֵּית יַעֲקֹב, מֵעַם לֹעֵזWhen Israel went out of Egypt, the House of Jacob from a foreign people,
הָיְתָה יְהוּדָה לְקָדְשׁוֹ; יִשְׂרָאֵל, מַמְשְׁלוֹתָיוJudah became His holy one, Israel His dominion.
הַיָּם רָאָה, וַיָּנֹס; הַיַּרְדֵּן, יִסֹּב לְאָחוֹרThe sea saw and fled, the Jordan turned backward.
הֶהָרִים, רָקְדוּ כְאֵילִים; גְּבָעוֹת, כִּבְנֵי-צֹאןThe mountains skipped like rams, the hills like young sheep.
מַה-לְּךָ הַיָּם, כִּי תָנוּס; הַיַּרְדֵּן, תִּסֹּב לְאָחוֹרWhat is with you, O sea, that you flee; Jordan, that you turn backward?
הֶהָרִים, תִּרְקְדוּ כְאֵילִים; גְּבָעוֹת, כִּבְנֵי-צֹאןMountains, why do you skip like rams;
הַהֹפְכִי הַצּוּר אֲגַם-מָיִם; חַלָּמִישׁ, לְמַעְיְנוֹ-מָיִםhills, like a pool of water, the flint-stone into a spring of water.
Further recitation
עִבְרִית ha'ivriEnglish
Blessed are You, G-d, our G-d, King of the universe,
who has redeemed us and redeemed our fathers from Egypt,
and enabled us to attain this night to eat matzah and maror.
So too, G-d, our G-d and G-d of our fathers, enable us to attain other holidays and festivals
that will come to us in peace with happiness in the rebuilding
of Your city, and with rejoicing in Your service [in the Bet Hamikdash].
Then we shall eat ...
Continue here if the סדר seder occurs on a Saturday night.
... of the Passover-offerings and of the sacrifices
whose blood shall be sprinkled on the wall of Your altar for acceptance;
and we shall thank You with a new song for our redemption and for the deliverance of our souls.
Blessed are You, G-d, who redeemed Israel.
Otherwise, continue here (if the סדר seder is not a Saturday night):
... of the sacrifices and of the Passover-offerings
הגפן ha'gafen
prayer for wine

The הגפן ha'gafen blessing is recited communally.

עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו מלך העולםbarukh attah adonai eloheinu melekh ha'olamnow bless our blessed lord, our god, majesty of the universe
בורא פרי הגפןbo'rei pe'ri ha'gafenwho creates the fruit of the vine
Drink the cup of wine while seated,
reclining on the left side as a sign of freedom.
Uncover the מצה matzah.

Blessing the meal

The סדר seder begins with a false start;
now we shall properly follow the rituals to commence our meal.

רחצה rachtzah
washing the hands

N'tilat yadayim / Mayim rishonim
Recite the appropriate blessing and wash the hands.
עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו מלך העולםbarukh atah adonai elohenu melekh ha'olamnow bless our blessed lord, our god, majesty of the universe
אשר קדשנו במצותיוasher qiddeshanu b'mitzvotavwho has sanctified us with His commandments
וצונו על נטילת ידיםv'tzivanu al netilath yadayimand commanded us on washing our hands
Now wash the hands.
One should not speak until after making the next two blessings and eating the מצה matzah.

המוציא ha'motzi
blessing over the bread

Take the Matzot in the order that they are lying on the tray.
The broken piece between the two whole Matzot; hold them in your hand and recite the following blessing:

This blessing is made only for bread made from one or all of wheat, barley, rye, oats, spelt. Normally, after this time the meal would begin, after passing around challah loaves for each person to break off a piece. However, on pesach there is a subsequent blessing for matzoh.

עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו מלך העולםbarukh atah adonai elohenu melekh ha'olamnow bless our blessed lord, our god, majesty of the universe
המוציא לחם מן הארץha'motzi lehem min ha‑aretzwho brings forth bread from the earth

מצה matzah

Do not break anything off the Matzot. First put down the third Matza (the bottom one), and recite the following blessing over the broken Matza and the top one.

When reciting the following blessing, have in mind that it refers also to eating the כורך korech and also אפיקומן afikoman.

עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו מלך העולםbarukh atah adonai elohenu melekh ha'olamnow bless our blessed lord, our god, majesty of the universe
אשר קדשנו במצותיוasher qiddeshanu b'mitzvotavwho has sanctified us with His commandments
and commanded us concerning the eating of Matzah
Each person break off a כזית‎ kezayit
(volume of one olive) of the two matzot held.
Eat the 2 pieces together in reclining position.

מרור maror

Take a כזית‎ kezayit (the volume of one olive)
of the מרור maror, dip it into the חֲרֽוֹסֶת charoset,
but then shake off the חֲרֽוֹסֶת charoset that stuck to it,
so that the bitter taste will not be neutralized.
Recite the following blessing:
עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו מלך העולםbarukh atah adonai elohenu melekh ha'olamnow bless our blessed lord, our god, majesty of the universe
אשר קדשנו במצותיוasher qiddeshanu b'mitzvotavwho has sanctified us with His commandments
and commanded us concerning the eating of Maror
Now eat the מרור maror, without reclining.

כורך korech

Take the third Matzah, and also a כזית‎ kezayit
(volume of one olive) of the chazeret,
which is to be dipped into חֲרֽוֹסֶת charoset.
Combine the two like a sandwich.
Recite the following blessing:
עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
Thus did Hilel do at the time of the Bet HaMikdash:
He would combine Passover lamb, matzah and maror
and eat them together, as it said:
"They shall eat it with Matzah and bitter herbs."
Eat the sandwich while reclining.

שולחן עורך shulchan arukh

Now eat and drink to your heart's delight. It is permitted to drink wine between the second and third cups.

צפון tzafun

After the meal, take the אפיקומן afikoman
and divide it among all the members of the household,
by giving everyone a כזית‎ kezayit (volume of an olive).
Eat it while reclining, before midnight.

Take care not to eat or drink (only water allowed, but not recommended) after the אפיקומן afikoman.

ברך bareich

"And you shall eat and you shall be satisfied. And you shall bless YHWH, your God, for the good land he has given you."(Dueteronomy 8:10)

The third cup is poured now.
Recite ברכת המזון birkat hamazon (blessing after meal) over it.


Psalm 126
a song of ascents
עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
When the L-rd will return the exiles of Zion, we will have been like dreamers.
Then our mouth will be filled with laughter, and our tongue with joyous song.
Then will they say among the nations,
"The L-rd has done great things for these."
The L-rd has done great things for us, we were joyful.
L-rd, return our exiles as streams in the Negev.
Those who sow in tears will reap with joyous song.
He goes along weeping, carrying the bag of seed;
he will surely come [back] with joyous song, carrying his sheaves.
Psalm 87
a song by the sons of Korach
עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
יְסוּדָתוֹ, בְּהַרְרֵי-קֹדֶשׁHe has founded his city on the holy mountain.
אֹהֵב יְהוָה, שַׁעֲרֵי צִיּוֹןThe Lord loves the gates of Zion
מִכֹּל, מִשְׁכְּנוֹת יַעֲקֹבmore than all the other dwellings of Jacob
נִכְבָּדוֹת, מְדֻבָּר בָּךְ-- עִיר הָאֱלֹהִים סֶלָהGlorious things are said of you, city of God: Selah
אַזְכִּירI will mention
רַהַב וּבָבֶלRahab and Babylon,
הִנֵּה פְלֶשֶׁת וְצֹר עִם-כּוּשׁPhilistia, Tyre and Cush.
זֶה, יֻלַּד-שָׁםthis one was born here
וּלְצִיּוֹן, יֵאָמַרAnd of Zion it will be said,
אִישׁ וְאִישׁ, יֻלַּד-בָּהּevery one born was born in her
וְהוּא יְכוֹנְנֶהָ עֶלְיוֹןand she was established by the supreme
יְהוָה--יִסְפֹּר, בִּכְתוֹב עַמִּיםGod will tell and write the nations
זֶה יֻלַּד-שָׁםthis one was born here
וְשָׁרִים כְּחֹלְלִיםand whether singing or dancing
כָּל-מַעְיָנַי בָּךְall that I see is of you
Psalm 34:2
עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
אֲבָרְכָה אֶת-יְהוָה בְּכָל-עֵתI will extol the Lord at all times;
תָּמִיד, תְּהִלָּתוֹ בְּפִיhis praise will always be on my lips.
Ecclesiastes 12:13
עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
סוֹף דָּבָר, הַכֹּל נִשְׁמָעNow the end of the matter, all having been heard:
אֶת-הָאֱלֹהִים יְרָא וְאֶת-מִצְו‍ֹתָיו שְׁמוֹרFear God and keep his commandments,
כִּי-זֶה כָּל-הָאָדָםfor this is the duty of all mankind.
Psalm 145:21
עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
תְּהִלַּת יְהוָה, יְדַבֶּר-פִּיMy mouth will speak in praise of the Lord.
וִיבָרֵךְ כָּל-בָּשָׂר, שֵׁם קָדְשׁוֹ--לְעוֹלָם וָעֶדLet every creature praise his holy name forever and ever.
And we will bless the L-rd from now and forever;

מים אחרונים mayim acharonim
washing the fingers

Before מים אחרונים mayim acharonim (washing fingers),
recite the following:
This is the portion of a wicked man from G-d,
and the heritage assigned to him by G-d.
מים אחרונים mayim acharonim (washing fingers)
After מים אחרונים mayim acharonim,
recite the following:
And he said to me:
This is the table that is before the L-rd.


Zimmun for males to recite
LeaderLet us say Grace!
CongregationMay the Name of the L-rd be blessed from now and forever.
The leader repeats this response, then continues.
LeaderWith the permission of the masters, teachers and ladies,
let us bless sHe of whose bounty we have eaten.
CongregationBlessed be she, of whose bounty we have eaten.
The leader repeats this response.
Those who did not have the meal respond instead:
Blessed and praised be her Name always, forever and ever.
Zimmun for females to recite
LeaderLet us say Grace!
CongregationMay the Name of the L-rd be blessed from now and forever.
The leader repeats this response, then continues.
LeaderWith the permission of the masters, teachers and gentlemen,
let us bless he of whose bounty we have eaten.
CongregationBlessed be he, of whose bounty we have eaten.
The leader repeats this response.
Those who did not have the meal respond instead:
Blessed and praised be his Name always, forever and ever.

ברכת המזון birkat hamazon

All who ate, recite.

birkat hazan

A blessing of thanks for the food was traditionally composed by Moses in gratitude for the manna which the Jews ate in the wilderness during the Exodus from Egypt.

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G-d, King of the universe,
who, in His goodness, feeds the whole world
with grace, with kindness and with mercy.
He gives food to all flesh, for His kindness is everlasting.
Through His great goodness to us continuously
we do not lack food, and may we never lack it,
for the sake of His great Name.
For He is a [benevolent] G-d who feeds and sustains all,
does good to all, and prepares food for all
His creatures whom He has created, as it is said:
You open Your hand and satisfy the desire
of every living thing.
Blessed are You L-rd, who provides food for all.
ברכת הארץ‎ birkat ha'aretz
the land

A blessing of thanks for the Land of Israel, is attributed to Joshua after he led the Jewish people into Israel.

We thank You, L-rd, our G-d,
for having given as a heritage to our fathers
a precious, good and spacious land;
for having brought us out, L-rd our G-d,
from the land of Egypt
and redeemed us from the house of slaves;
for Your covenant which You have sealed in our flesh;
for Your Torah which You have taught us;
for Your statutes which You have made known to us;
for the life, favor and kindness which
You have graciously bestowed upon us;
and for the food we eat with which
You constantly feed and sustain us every day,
at all times, and at every hour.
For all this, L-rd our G-d, we thank You and bless You.
May Your Name be blessed by the mouth of every living being, constantly and forever.
As it is written: When you have eaten and are satiated,
you shall bless the L-rd your G-d,
for the good land which He has given you.
Blessed are You, L-rd, for the land and for the food.
ברכת ירושלים birkat yerushalayim

Concerns Jerusalem, is ascribed to David, who established it as the capital of Israel and Solomon, who built the Temple in Jerusalem. On shabbat, include the italicized sections.

Have mercy, L-rd our G-d,
upon Israel Your people, upon Jerusalem Your city,
upon Zion the abode of Your glory,
upon the kingship of the house of David Your anointed,
and upon the great and holy House which is called by Your Name.
Our G-d, our Father, Our Shepherd, feed us, sustain us, nourish us
and give us comfort;
and speedily, L-rd our G-d,
grant us relief from all our afflictions.
L-rd, our G-d, please do not make us dependent
upon the gifts of mortal men nor upon their loans,
but only upon Your full, open, holy and generous hand,
that we may not be shamed or disgraced forever and ever.
May it please You, G-d, our G-d,
to strengthen us through Your commandments,
and through the precept of the Seventh Day,
this great and holy Shabbat.
For this day is great and holy before You,
to refrain from work and to rest thereon with love,
in accordance with the commandment of Your will.
In Your will, G-d, our G-d, bestow upon us tranquility,
that there shall be no trouble, sadness or grief
on the day of our rest.
G-d, our G-d, let us see the consolation of Zion Your city,
and the rebuilding of Jerusalem Your holy city,
for You are the Master of [all] salvations
and the Master of [all] consolations.
Our G-d and G-d of our fathers, may there ascend,
come and reach, be seen and accepted, heard, recalled
and remembered before You,
the remembrance and recollection of us,
the remembrance of our fathers,
the remembrance of Mashiach the son of David Your servant,
the remembrance of Jerusalem
Your holy city, and the remembrance
of all Your people the House of Israel,
for deliverance, well-being, grace, kindness, mercy, good life and peace,
on this day of the Festival of Matzot,
on this Festival of holy convocation.
Remember us on this [day], L-rd, our G-d, for good;
recollect us on this [day] for blessing;
help us on this [day] for good life.
With the promise of deliverance and compassion,
spare us and be gracious to us;
have mercy upon us and deliver us;
for our eyes are directed to You,
for You, G-d, are a gracious and merciful King.
Rebuild Jerusalem the holy city
speedily in our days.
Blessed are You, L-rd,
who in His mercy rebuilds Jerusalem.
birkat hatov v'hameitiv, god's goodness

A blessing of thanks for God's goodness, written by Rabban Gamliel in Yavneh. The obligation to recite this blessing is regarded as a rabbinic obligation.

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G-d, King of the universe,
benevolent god, our parent, our majesty, our might,
our creator, our redeemer, our maker, our holy one, the holy one of Jacob,
our shepherd, the Sshepherd of Israel,
the majesty who is good and does good to all, each and every day.
God has done good for us, god does good for us, and god will do good for us;
god has bestowed, god bestows, and god will forever
bestow upon us grace, kindness and mercy, relief,
salvation and success, blessing and help, consolation,
sustenance and nourishment, compassion, life,
peace and all goodness;
and may god never cause us to lack any good.
May the Merciful One reign over us forever and ever.
May the Merciful One be blessed in heaven and on earth.
May the Merciful One be praised for all generations,
and be glorified in us forever and all eternity,
and honored in us forever and ever.
May the Merciful One sustain us with honor.
May the Merciful One break the yoke of exile from our neck
and may He lead us upright to our land.
May the Merciful One send abundant blessing into this house
and upon this table at which we have eaten.
May the Merciful One send us Elijah the Prophet
may he be remembered for good and may he bring us good tidings, salvation and consolation.
May the Merciful One bless my father, my teacher, the master of this house,
and my mother, my teacher, the mistress of this house;
them, their household, their children, and all that is theirs;
us, and all that is ours.
Just as He blessed our forefathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob,
"in everything," "from everything," with "everything,"
so may He bless all of us (the children of the Covenant)
together with a perfect blessing, and let us say,
From On High, may there be invoked upon him
and upon us such merit which will bring a safeguarding of peace.
May we receive blessing from the L-rd
and just kindness from the G-d of our salvation,
and may we find grace and good understanding in the eyes of G-d and man.
May the Merciful One cause us to inherit that day
which will be all Shabbat and rest for life everlasting.
May the Merciful One cause us to inherit that day which is all good.
May the Merciful One grant us the privilege
of reaching the days of the Mashiach and the life of the World to Come.
He is a tower of salvation to His king,
and bestows kindness upon His anointed,
to David and his descendants forever.
He who makes peace in His heights,
may He make peace for us and for all Israel; and say,
Fear the L-rd, you His holy ones, for those who fear Him suffer no want.
Young lions are in need and go hungry,
but those who seek the L-rd shall not lack any good.
Give thanks to the L-rd for He is good,
for His kindness is everlasting.
You open Your hand and satisfy the desire of every living thing.
Blessed is the man who trusts in the L-rd, and the L-rd will be his trust.
הגפן ha'gafen
prayer for wine
Blessing for grape wine and no other drink. Hands are usually washed first, but not tonight.
עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו מלך העולםbarukh attah adonai eloheinu melekh ha'olamnow bless our blessed lord, our god, majesty of the universe
בורא פרי הגפןbo'rei pe'ri ha'gafenwho creates the fruit of the vine
Drink the cup of wine while seated,
reclining on the left side as a sign of freedom.
Uncover the מצה matzah.
The fourth cup is poured and the door is opened.
Say the following:

Pour out Your wrath upon the nations that do not acknowledge You,
and upon the kingdoms that do not call upon Your Name.
For they have devoured Jacob and laid waste his habitation.
Pour out Your indignation upon them,
and let the wrath of Your anger overtake them.
Pursue them with anger,
and destroy them from beneath the heavens of the L-rd.

הלל hallel, part II

psalm 115
לֹא לָנוּ יְהוָה, לֹא-לָנוּ: כִּי-לְשִׁמְךָ, תֵּן כָּבוֹדNot to us, L-rd, not to us, but to Your Name give glory,
עַל-חַסְדְּךָ, עַל-אֲמִתֶּךָfor the sake of Your kindness and Your truth.
לָמָּה, יֹאמְרוּ הַגּוֹיִם: אַיֵּה-נָא, אֱלֹהֵיהֶםWhy should the nations say, "Where, now, is their G-d?"
וֵאלֹהֵינוּ בַשָּׁמָיִם-- כֹּל אֲשֶׁר-חָפֵץ עָשָׂהOur G-d is in heaven, whatever He desires, He does.
עֲצַבֵּיהֶם, כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב; מַעֲשֵׂה, יְדֵי אָדָםTheir idols are of silver and gold, the product of human hands:
פֶּה-לָהֶם, וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּthey have a mouth, but cannot speak;
עֵינַיִם לָהֶם, וְלֹא יִרְאוּthey have eyes, but cannot see;
אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם, וְלֹא יִשְׁמָעוּthey have ears, but cannot hear;
אַף לָהֶם, וְלֹא יְרִיחוּןthey have a nose, but cannot smell;
יְדֵיהֶם, וְלֹא יְמִישׁוּן--רַגְלֵיהֶם, וְלֹא יְהַלֵּכוּtheir hands cannot feel; their feet cannot walk;
לֹא-יֶהְגּוּ, בִּגְרוֹנָםnor can they speak with their throat.
כְּמוֹהֶם, יִהְיוּ עֹשֵׂיהֶם-- כֹּל אֲשֶׁר-בֹּטֵחַ בָּהֶםLike them should be their makers, everyone that trusts in them.
יִשְׂרָאֵל, בְּטַח בַּיהוָה; עֶזְרָם וּמָגִנָּם הוּאIsrael, trust in the L-rd! He is their help and their shield.
בֵּית אַהֲרֹן, בִּטְחוּ בַיהוָה; עֶזְרָם וּמָגִנָּם הוּאHouse of Aaron, trust in the L-rd! He is their help and their shield.
יִרְאֵי יְהוָה, בִּטְחוּ בַיהוָה; עֶזְרָם וּמָגִנָּם הוּאYou who fear the L-rd, trust in the L-rd! He is their help and their shield.
יְהוָה, זְכָרָנוּ יְבָרֵךְThe L-rd, mindful of us, will bless:
יְבָרֵךְ, אֶת-בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל; יְבָרֵךְ, אֶת-בֵּית אַהֲרֹןHe will bless the House of Israel; He will bless the House of Aaron;
יְבָרֵךְ, יִרְאֵי יְהוָה -- הַקְּטַנִּים, עִם-הַגְּדֹלִיםHe will bless those who fear the L-rd, the small with the great.
יֹסֵף יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם; עֲלֵיכֶם, וְעַל בְּנֵיכֶםMay the L-rd increase [blessing] upon you, upon you and upon your children.
בְּרוּכִים אַתֶּם, לַיהוָה -- עֹשֵׂה, שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץYou are blessed unto the L-rd, the Maker of heaven and earth.
הַשָּׁמַיִם שָׁמַיִם, לַיהוָה; וְהָאָרֶץ, נָתַן לִבְנֵי-אָדָםThe heavens are the heavens of the L-rd, but the earth He gave to the children of man.
לֹא הַמֵּתִים, יְהַלְלוּ-יָהּ; וְלֹא, כָּל-יֹרְדֵי דוּמָהThe dead do not praise G-d, nor do those that go down into the silence [of the grave].
וַאֲנַחְנוּ, נְבָרֵךְ יָהּ -- מֵעַתָּה וְעַד-עוֹלָםBut we will bless G-d, from now to eternity.
psalm 116
I love the L-rd, because He hears my voice, my prayers.
For He turned His ear to me; all my days I will call [upon Him].
The pangs of death encompassed me, and the agonies of the grave came upon me,
trouble and sorrow I encounter and I call u upon the Name of the L-rd:
Please, L-rd, deliver my soul!
The L-rd is gracious and just, our G-d is compassionate.
The L-rd watches over the simpletons; I was brought low and He saved me.
Return, my soul, to your rest, for the L-rd has dealt kindly with you.
For You have delivered my soul from death, my eyes from tears, my foot from stumbling.
I will walk before the L-rd in the lands of the living.
I had faith even when I said, "I am greatly afflicted;"
[even when] I said in my haste, "All men are deceitful."
What can I repay the L-rd for all His kindness to me?
I will raise the cup of salvation and call upon the Name of the L-rd.
I will pay my vows to the L-rd in the presence of all His people.
Precious in the eyes of the L-rd is the death of His pious ones.
I thank you, L-rd, for I am Your servant.
I am Your servant the son of Your handmaid, You have loosened my bonds.
To You I will bring an offering of thanksgiving, and I will call upon the Name of the L-rd.
I will pay my vows to the L-rd in the presence of all His people,
in the courtyards of the House of the L-rd, in the midst of Jerusalem.
psalm 117
Praise the L-rd, all nations! Extol Him, all peoples!
For His kindness was mighty over us, and the truth of the L-rd is everlasting.
psalm 118
Give thanks to the L-rd, for He is good, for His kindness is everlasting.
Let Israel say [it], for His kindness is everlasting.
Let the House of Aaron say [it], for His kindness is everlasting.
Let those who fear the L-rd say [it], for His kindness is everlasting.
Out of narrow confines I called to G-d; G-d answered me with abounding relief.
The L-rd is with me, I will not fear what can man do to me?
The L-rd is with me, through my helpers, and I can face my enemies.
It is better to rely on the L-rd, than to trust in man.
It is better to rely on the L-rd, than to trust in nobles.
All nations surround me, but I cut them down in the Name of the L-rd.
They surrounded me, they encompassed me, but I cut them down in the Name of the L-rd.
They surrounded me like bees, yet they are extinguished like a fire of thorns;
I cut them down in the Name of the L-rd.
You [my foes] pushed me again and again to fall, but the L-rd helped me.
G-d is my strength and song, and this has been my salvation.
The sound of joyous song and salvation is in the tents of the righteous:
"The right hand of the L-rd performs deeds of valor.
The right hand of the L-rd is exalted; the right hand of the L-rd performs deeds of valor!"
I shall not die, but I shall live and relate the deeds of G-d.
G-d has chastised me, but He did not give me over to death.
Open for me the gates of righteousness; I will enter them and give thanks to G-d.
This is the gate of the L-rd, the righteous will enter it.
I thank You for You have answered me, and You have been a help to me.
I thank You for You have answered me, and You have been a help to me.
The stone scorned by the builders has become the main cornerstone.
The stone scorned by the builders has become the main cornerstone.
This was indeed from the L-rd, it is wondrous in our eyes.
This was indeed from the L-rd, it is wondrous in our eyes.
This day the L-rd has made, let us be glad and rejoice on it.
This day the L-rd has made, let us be glad and rejoice on it.
O L-rd, please help us! O L-rd, please help us!
O L-rd, please grant us success! O L-rd, please grant us success!
Blessed is he who comes in the Name of the L-rd; we bless you from the House of the L-rd.
Blessed is he who comes in the Name of the L-rd; we bless you from the House of the L-rd.
The L-rd is Almighty, He gave us light;
bind the festival-offering until [you bring it to] the horns of the altar.
The L-rd is Almighty, He gave us light;
bind the festival-offering until [you bring it to] the horns of the altar.
You are my G-d and I will thank You; my G-d, I will exalt You.
You are my G-d and I will thank You; my G-d, I will exalt You.
Give thanks to the L-rd, for He is good, for His kindness is everlasting.
Give thanks to the L-rd, for He is good, for His kindness is everlasting.

L-rd, our G-d, all Your works shall praise You; Your pious ones, the righteous who do Your will, and all Your people, the House of Israel, with joyous song will thank and bless, laud and glorify, exalt and adore, sanctify and proclaim the sovereignty of Your Name, our King. For it is good to thank You, and befitting to sing to Your Name, for from the beginning to the end of the world You are Almighty G-d. Give thanks to the L-rd, for He is good for His kindness is everlasting;

The Great Hallel
psalm 136

Hallel HaGadol, or "The Great Hallel" refers to Tehillim, Chapter 136 (The 26 Ki LiOlam Chasdo's).

הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי-טוֹב - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹGive thanks unto the LORD, for He is good - for His kindness is everlasting;
הוֹדוּ, לֵאלֹהֵי הָאֱלֹהִים - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹGive thanks to the G-d of gods - for His kindness is everlasting;
הוֹדוּ, לַאֲדֹנֵי הָאֲדֹנִים - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹGive thanks to the L-rd of lords - for His kindness is everlasting;
לְעֹשֵׂה נִפְלָאוֹת גְּדֹלוֹת לְבַדּוֹ - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹWho alone does great wonders - for His kindness is everlasting;
לְעֹשֵׂה הַשָּׁמַיִם, בִּתְבוּנָה - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹWho made the heavens with understanding - for His kindness is everlasting;
לְרֹקַע הָאָרֶץ, עַל-הַמָּיִם - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹWho stretched out the earth above the waters - for His kindness is everlasting;
לְעֹשֵׂה, אוֹרִים גְּדֹלִים - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹWho made the great lights - for His kindness is everlasting;
אֶת-הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת בַּיּוֹם - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹThe sun, to rule by day - for His kindness is everlasting;
אֶת-הַיָּרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים, לְמֶמְשְׁלוֹת בַּלָּיְלָה - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹThe moon and stars, to rule by night - for His kindness is everlasting;
לְמַכֵּה מִצְרַיִם, בִּבְכוֹרֵיהֶם - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹWho struck Egypt through their first-born - for His kindness is everlasting;
וַיּוֹצֵא יִשְׂרָאֵל, מִתּוֹכָם - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹAnd brought Israel out of their midst - for His kindness is everlasting;
בְּיָד חֲזָקָה, וּבִזְרוֹעַ נְטוּיָה - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹWith a strong hand and with an outstretched arm - for His kindness is everlasting;
לְגֹזֵר יַם-סוּף, לִגְזָרִים - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹWho split the Sea of Reeds into sections - for His kindness is everlasting;
וְהֶעֱבִיר יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּתוֹכוֹ - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹAnd led Israel through it - for His kindness is everlasting;
וְנִעֵר פַּרְעֹה וְחֵילוֹ בְיַם-סוּף - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹAnd cast Pharaoh and his army into the Sea of Reeds - for His kindness is everlasting;
לְמוֹלִיךְ עַמּוֹ, בַּמִּדְבָּר - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹWho led His people through the desert - for His kindness is everlasting;
לְמַכֵּה, מְלָכִים גְּדֹלִים - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹWho struck great kings - for His kindness is everlasting;
וַיַּהֲרֹג, מְלָכִים אַדִּירִים - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹAnd slew mighty kings - for His kindness is everlasting;
לְסִיחוֹן, מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹSichon, king of the Amorites - for His kindness is everlasting;
וּלְעוֹג, מֶלֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹAnd Og, king of Bashan - for His kindness is everlasting;
וְנָתַן אַרְצָם לְנַחֲלָה - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹAnd gave their land as a heritage for His kindness is everlasting;
נַחֲלָה, לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַבְדּוֹ - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹA heritage to Israel, His servant - for His kindness is everlasting;
שֶׁבְּשִׁפְלֵנוּ, זָכַר לָנוּ - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹWho remembered us in our lowliness - for His kindness is everlasting;
וַיִּפְרְקֵנוּ מִצָּרֵינוּ - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹAnd delivered us from our oppressors - for His kindness is everlasting;
נֹתֵן לֶחֶם, לְכָל-בָּשָׂר - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹWho gives food to all flesh for His kindness is everlasting;
הוֹדוּ, לְאֵל הַשָּׁמָיִם - כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹThank the G-d of heaven - for His kindness is everlasting.
נִשְמַת כָּל חַי Nishmat kol chai
נִשְׁמַת כָּל חַי תְּבָרֵךְ אֶת שִׁמְךָ ה' אֱלֹוהֵינוּThe soul of every living being shall bless Your Name, L-rd, our G-d;
וְרוּחַ כָּל בָּשָׂר תְּפָאֵר וּתְרוֹמֵם זִכְרְךָ מַלְכֵּנוּ תָּמִידand the spirit of all flesh shall always glorify and exalt Your remembrance, our King.
מִן הָעוֹלָם וְעַד הָעוֹלָם אַתָּה אֵלFrom the beginning to the end of the world You are Almighty G-d;
וּמִבַּלְעָדֶיךָ אֵין לָנוּ מֶלֶךְ גּוֹאֵל וּמוֹשִׁיעַ פּוֹדֶה וּמַצִּיל וּמְפַרְנֵס וּמְרַחֵם בְּכֹל עֵת צָרָה וְצוּקָהand other than You we have no King, Redeemer and Savior who delivers, rescues, sustains, answers and is merciful in every time of trouble and distress;
אֵין לָנוּ מֶלֶךְ אֶלָּא אָתָּהwe have no King but You.
אֱלֹהֵי הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְהָאַחֲרוֹנִים[You are] the G-d of the first and of the last [generations],
אֱלוֹהַּ כָּל בְּרִיּוֹתG-d of all creatures
אֲדוֹן כָּל תּוֹלָדוֹתL-rd of all events,
הַמְהֻלָּל בְּרֹב הַתִּשְׁבָּחוֹתwho is extolled with manifold praises,
הַמְנַהֵג עוֹלָמוֹ בְּחֶסֶד וּבְרִיּוֹתָיו בְּרַחֲמִיםwho directs His world with kindness and His creatures with compassion.
וַה' לֹא יָנוּם וְלֹא יִישָׁןBehold, the L-rd neither slumbers nor sleeps.
הַמְעוֹרֵר יְשֵׁנִים וְהַמֵּקִיץ נִרְדָּמִיםHe arouses the sleepers and awakens the slumberous,
וְהַמֵּשִׂיחַ אִלְּמִים וְהַמַּתִּיר אֲסוּרִיםgives speech to the mute, releases the bound,
וְהַסּוֹמֵךְ נוֹפְלִים וְהַזּוֹקֵף כְּפוּפִיםsupports the falling and raises up those who are bowed.
לְךָ לְבַדְּךָ אֲנַחְנוּ מוֹדִיםTo You alone we give thanks.
אִלּוּ פִינוּ מָלֵא שִׁירָה כַּיָּםEven if our mouths were filled with song as the sea,
וּלְשׁוֹנֵנוּ רִנָּה כַּהֲמוֹן גַּלָּיוand our tongues with joyous singing like the multitudes of its waves,
וְשִׂפְתוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁבַח כְּמֶרְחֲבֵי רָקִיעַand our lips with praise like the expanse of the sky;
וְעֵינֵינוּ מְאִירוֹת כַּשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְכַיָּרֵחַand our eyes shining like the sun and the moon,
וְיָדֵינוּ פְרוּשׂוֹת כְּנִשְׁרֵי שָׁמָיִםand our hands spread out like the eagles of heaven,
וְרַגְלֵינוּ קַלּוֹת כָּאַיָּלוֹת [incomplete?]and our feet swift like deer
אֵין אֲנַחְנוּ מַסְפִּיקִים לְהוֹדוֹת לְךָ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּwe would still be unable to thank You L-rd, our G-d and G-d of our fathers,
וּלְבָרֵךְ אֶת שְׁמֶךָand to bless Your Name,
עַל אַחַת מֵאָלֶף אֶלֶף אַלְפֵי אֲלָפִים וְרִבֵּי רְבָבוֹת פְּעָמִים הַטּוֹבוֹת שֶׁעָשִׂיתָ עִם אֲבוֹתֵינוּ וְעִמָּנוּ for even one of the thousands of millions, and myriads of myriads, of favors, miracles and wonders which you have done for our ancestors and us. [L-rd, our G-d.]
מִמִּצְרַיִם גְּאַלְתָּנוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ וּמִבֵּית עֲבָדִים פְּדִיתָנוּYou have redeemed us from Egypt, You have freed us from the house of bondage,
בְּרָעָב זַנְתָּנוּYou have fed us in famine
וּבְשָׂבָע כִּלְכַּלְתָּנוּand nourished us in plenty;
מֵחֶרֶב הִצַּלְתָּנוּYou have saved us from the sword
וּמִדֶּבֶר מִלַּטְתָּנוּand delivered us from pestilence,
וּמֵחֳלָיִם רָעִים וְנֶאֱמָנִים דִּלִּיתָנוּand recovered us from evil and lasting diseases.
עַד הֵנָּה עֲזָרוּנוּ רַחֲמֶיךָUntil now Your mercies have helped us,
וְלֹא עֲזָבוּנוּ חָסָדֶיךָand Your kindnesses have not forsaken us;
וְאַל תִּטְּשֵׁנוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָנֶצַחand do not abandon us, L-rd our G-d, forever!
עַל כֵּן אֵבָרִים שֶׁפִּלַּגְתָּ בָּנוּTherefore, the limbs which You have arranged within us,
וְרוּחַ וּנְשָׁמָה שֶׁנָּפַחְתָּ בְּאַפֵּנוּand the spirit and soul which You have breathed into our nostrils,
וְלָשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתָּ בְּפִינוּand the tongue which You have placed in our mouth
הֵן הֵם יוֹדוּ וִיבָרְכוּ וִישַׁבְּחוּ וִיפָאֲרוּ וִירוֹמְמוּ וְיַעֲרִיצוּ וְיַקְדִּישׁוּ וְיַמְלִיכוּ אֶת שִׁמְךָ מַלְכֵּנוּthey all shall thank, bless, praise, glorify, exalt, adore, sanctify and proclaim the sovereignty of Your Name, our King.
כִּי כָל פֶּה לְךָ יוֹדֶהFor every mouth shall offer thanks to You,
וְכָל לָשׁוֹן לְךָ תִשָּׁבַעevery tongue shall swear by You,
וְכָל בֶּרֶךְ לְךָ תִכְרַעevery eye shall look to You,
וְכָל קוֹמָה לְפָנֶיךָ תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶהevery knee shall bend to You,
[all who stand erect shall bow down before You,]
וְכָל לְבָבוֹת יִירָאוּךָall hearts shall fear You,
וְכָל קֶרֶב וּכְלָיוֹת יְזַמְּרוּ לִשְׁמֶךָand every innermost part shall sing praise to Your Name,
כַּדָּבָר שֶׁכָּתוּב כָּל עַצְמוֹתַי תֹּאמַרְנָה ה' מִי כָמוֹךָ מַצִּיל עָנִי מֵחָזָק מִמֶּנּוּ וְעָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן מִגּוֹזְלוֹas it is written: "All my bones will say, L-rd, who is like You; You save the poor from one stronger than he, the poor and the needy from one who would rob him!"
מִי יִדְמֶה לָּךְ וּמִי יִשְׁוֶה לָּךְ וּמִי יַעֲרָךְ לָךְWho can be likened to You, who is equal to You, who can be compared to You,
הָאֵל הַגָּדֹל הַגִּבֹּר וְהַנּוֹרָא אֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץthe great, mighty, awesome G-d, G-d most high, Possessor of heaven and earth!
נְהַלֶּלְךָ וּנְשַׁבֵּחֲךָ וּנְפָאֶרְךָ וּנְבָרֵךְ אֶת שֵׁם קָדְשֶׁךָWe will laud You, praise You and glorify You, and we will bless Your holy Name,
כָּאָמוּר לְדָוִד בָּרְכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת ה' וְכָל קְרָבַי אֵת שֵׁם קָדְשׁוֹ as it is said: "[A Psalm] by David; bless the L-rd, O my soul, and all that is within me [bless] His holy Name."
הָאֵל בְּתַעֲצֻמוֹת עֻזֶּךָYou are the Almighty G-d in the power of Your strength;
הַגָּדוֹל בִּכְבוֹד שְׁמֶךָthe Great in the glory of Your Name;
הַגִּבּוֹר לָנֶצַח וְהַנּוֹרָא בְּנוֹרְאוֹתֶיךָthe Mighty forever, and the Awesome in Your awesome deeds;
הַמֶּלֶךְ הַיּוֹשֵׂב עַל כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂאthe King who sits upon a lofty and exalted throne.
שׁוֹכֵן עַד מָרוֹם וְקָדוֹשׁ שְׁמוֹHe who dwells for eternity, lofty and holy is His Name.
וְכָתוּב רַנְּנוּ צַדִּיקִים בַּה' לַיְשָׁרִים נָאוָה תְהִלָּהAnd it is written: "Sing joyously to the L-rd, you righteous; it befits the upright to offer praise."
בְּפִי יְשָׁרִים תִּתְהַלָּלBy the mouth of the upright You are exalted;
וּבְדִבְרֵי צַדִּיקִים תִּתְבָּרַךְby the lips of the righteous You are blessed;
וּבִלְשׁוֹן חֲסִידִים תִּתְרוֹמָםby the tongue of the pious You are sanctified;
וּבְקֶרֶב קְדוֹשִׁים תִּתְקַדָּשׁand among the holy ones You are praised.
וּבְמַקְהֲלוֹת רִבְבוֹת עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרִנָּה יִתְפָּאַר שִׁמְךָ מַלְכֵּנוּ בְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר In the assemblies of the myriads of Your people, the House of Israel, Your Name, our King, shall be glorified with song in every generation.
שֶׁכֵּן חוֹבַת כָּל הַיְצוּרִים לְפָנֶיךָ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ For such is the obligation of all creatures before You, L-rd, our G-d and G-d of our fathers,
לְהוֹדוֹת לְהַלֵּל לְשַׁבֵּחַ לְפָאֵר לְרוֹמֵם לְהַדֵּר לְבָרֵךְ לְעַלֵּה וּלְקַלֵּסto thank, to laud, to praise, to glorify, to exalt, to adore, to bless, to elevate and to honor You,
עַל כָּל דִּבְרֵי שִׁירוֹת וְתִשְׁבְּחוֹת דָּוִד בֶּן יִשַׁי עַבְדְּךָ מְשִׁיחֶךָeven beyond all the words of songs and praises of David son of Yishai, Your anointed servant.
יִשְׁתַּבַּח שִׁמְךָ לָעַד מַלְכֵּנוּAnd therefore may Your Name be praised forever, our King,
הָאֵל הַמֶּלֶךְ הַגָּדוֹל וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץthe great and holy G-d and King in heaven and on earth.
כִּי לְךָ נָאֶה ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּFor to You, L-rd, our G-d and G-d of our fathers,
שִׁיר וּשְׁבָחָהforever befits song and praise,
הַלֵּל וְזִמְרָהpraise and singing,
עֹז וּמֶמְשָׁלָהstrength and dominion,
נֶצַח גְּדֻלָּה וּגְבוּרָהforever victorious and mighty
תְּהִלָּה וְתִפְאֶרֶתpraise and glory,
קְדֻשָּׁה וּמַלְכוּתholiness and sovereignty;
blessings and thanksgivings to Your great and holy Name;
בְּרָכוֹת וְהוֹדָאוֹת מֵעַתָּה וְעַד עוֹלָםfrom the beginning to the end of the world You are Almighty G-d.
בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה'Blessed are You,
אֵל מֶלֶךְ גָּדוֹל בַּתִּשְׁבָּחוֹתL-rd, Almighty G-d, King, great and extolled in praises,
G-d of thanksgivings, L-rd of wonders, Creator of all souls,
אֵל הַהוֹדָאוֹת אֲדוֹן הַנִּפְלָאוֹתMaster of all creatures,
הַבּוֹחֵר בְּשִׁירֵי זִמְרָהwho takes pleasure in songs of praise;
מֶלֶךְ אֵל חֵי הָעוֹלָמִיםthe only King, the Life of all worlds.
הגפן ha'gafen
prayer for wine

Those who have the custom to recite hymns [after the סדר seder] should not do so now, between this blessing and the one for the fourth cup. One must recite the blessing for the fourth cup immediately now:

עִבְרִית ha'ivriTransliterationEnglish
ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו מלך העולםbarukh attah adonai eloheinu melekh ha'olamnow bless our blessed lord, our god, majesty of the universe
בורא פרי הגפןbo'rei pe'ri ha'gafenwho creates the fruit of the vine
Blessing after the wine.
Drink in reclining position.


Blessed are You, L-rd our G-d, King of the universe
for the vine and the fruit of the vine,
for the produce of the field,
and for the precious, good and spacious land
which You have favored to give as an heritage to our fathers,
to eat of its fruit and be satiated by its goodness.
Have mercy, L-rd our G-d, on Israel Your people,
on Jerusalem Your city,
on Zion the abode of Your glory,
on Your altar and on Your Temple.
Rebuild Jerusalem, the holy city,
speedily in our days, and bring us up into it,
and make us rejoice in it,
and we will bless You in holiness and purity
(On Shabbat add: May it please You to strengthen us on this Shabbat day)
and remember us for good on this day of the Festival of Matzot.
For You, L-rd, are good and do good to all,
and we thank You for the land and for the fruit of the vine.
Blessed are You, L-rd, for the land and for the fruit of the vine.

נירצה nirtzah


More songs

Go Down Moses by the Harmonizing Four.
Chad Gadya.

Passover themes

Four cups of wine

  1. kos rishon

  2. kos 2

  3. kos 3

  4. kos 4

The four cups symbolize four distinct promises made by god as told in Exodus 6:6-7,
and have come to represent Passover as a story about every Jewish oppression, of persecution and salvation.

They became associated with separate acts of redemption, each indicative of a specific epoch of Jewish history, and each presumably called for by a specific Biblical promise. One rabbi in fact, Rabbi Tarfon, used to drink a fifth cup at his Seder. He traced it to yet a fifth Biblical prophecy, one that differed from the other four in that it had yet to be fulfilled. For Rabbi Tarfon, the Seder was more than just a lesson in history. It was the making of history, the night of ultimate salvation, God's reentry into history to save Israel again, as He had done so long ago. Although traditional Haggadahs eventually dispensed with this fifth cup, the custom of anticipating final redemption on Passover eve was never entirely lost. A fifth cup remained on the table during the meal and became known as the cup of Elijah, the prophet expected to herald this ultimate deliverance. So, today, at the meal's end, after participating in the story of the Exodus and journeying with Israel of old from degradation to glory, the Jew reaches out in spirit for that ultimate glory, promised through the prophets and described by the rabbis: the Messianic age, the end of subjugation for all, capsulated in the words "Next year in Jerusalem!" New Union Haggadah, p 11

kos rishon
first cup: cup of sanctification

I will bring you out (hotzeti) of Egypt

kos 2
second cup: cup of deliverance

I will deliver you (hitzalti) from Egyptian slavery.

kos 3
third cup: cup of redemption

I will redeem you (ga'alti) with my power. The third cup of wine. Cup of Elijah the prophet.

kos 4
fourth cup: cup of restoration

I will take you (lakachti) as my people.



The afikoman is the half matzah that is set aside during the breaking of the matzah early in the Seder. An old tradition held that p 15 → p 16 the group could not leave the Seder table unless all had tasted of the afikoman. In connection with this, and in order to arouse and maintain the interest of the children and to provide some entertainment for them, a practice developed of hiding and searching for the afikoman. Some time during the meal the elader hides the afikoman wrapped in a napkin, trying to elude the watchful observance of the children, whose endeavor it is to search out its hiding place. Prizes might be awarded to all who participated, with a special gift to the one who actually found it. New Union Haggadah, p 15 - 16


In the Middle Ages, Christians confusedly connected their own beliefs p 20 → p 21 about wine and blood with their conviction that the Jewish Seder was a mysterious sacerdotal rite -- and thus arose their wild accusations that in the making of the matzah, the blood of a Christian child was mixed in.

Up to the present century, in the notorious Beilis trial in Kiev in 1912, the "blood accusation" kept recurring, and one hears echoes of it even now. It might have been in the hope of disproving such horror stories that the custom of opening the door to Elijah was adopted, to show the innocence of the feast. Levin 1969, p 20 - 21